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A Guide to Buying Humanely-Produced Meat, Eggs, and Dairy Products


The food-animal industry in the United States is a mess.¬†Most food animals are raised in confined animal feeding operations — “factory farms,” colloquially — where they’re crammed together into warehouses or small cages, forced to stand in their own urine and feces, and subjected to painful mutilations. They’re given hormones to make them grow faster and larger and produce more.¬†They peck and bite at one another in boredom and frustration.

Factory farms exist because it’s cheaper to produce meat, eggs, and dairy products in confined conditions. Animal suffering is irrelevant as long as it doesn’t cut into profits. Even premature deaths are acceptable as long as overall production per unit cost is higher.

Since you’re reading this, I’m assuming that you care about animal suffering and want to minimize it. But there are other reasons to buy humanely-produced animal products. For one: meat, eggs, and dairy produced in more natural conditions are provably healthier than factory farmed alternatives. Not all steaks and eggs are created equal.

Growing awareness of factory farming conditions has led to an abundance of labels. Eggs are “cage free,” “free range,” and “vegetarian fed”; meat is “free range,” “grass fed,” and “certified humane”; milk is “rBST free.” The problem is that these labels are deceptive. Some aren’t controlled or verified at all, while others require only minimal protections for animals. You can bet that factory farms, which compete mostly on price, aren’t doing any more than their labels legally require them.

In this article, I’ll explain what these labels actually mean and which of them indicate humane conditions for animals. (Very few of them do). I’ll also explain the health benefits of eating products from naturally raised animals. And finally I’ll look at prices and availability.

A warning: The humane stuff isn’t cheap. Factory farms have gotten meat, egg, and dairy production down to a science. We’re used to unrealistically low prices for these foods.


By all accounts chickens are one of the most poorly treated species of food animal. In the worst case (and also the most common one) they’re crammed into tiny “battery cages,” each about the size of a filing cabinet drawer and holding eight to ten hens. The chickens don’t have room to lie down or stretch their wings, much less engage in natural behaviors.

It’s safe to assume that any eggs not labeled as “cage free” or “free range” come from hens living in battery cages. The cheapest eggs — the ones you can get for $1 to $2 per dozen (or less) — fall into this category.

"Cage free" chickens, taken from a New York Times article

"Cage free" chickens, taken from linked New York Times article

“Cage free” and “free range” eggs are better from a humane standpoint than battery caged eggs, but they’re not as much better as you might think. “Cage free” hens are packed into large warehouses often containing more than five thousand birds apiece. Though the hens aren’t in cages, they get only a square foot or so of space each and are kept awake in artificial light to increase production. The ends of their beaks are chopped off to prevent them from pecking each other to death — which will happen when thousands are jammed together and they can’t establish a pecking order. The warehouses reek of ammonia from the hens’ urine.

The “free range” label is deceptive. All it means (according to the US Department of Agriculture definition) is that hens are given “access to the outside.” This generally means hens can exit their cage-free warehouses (see above) and roam in a small outdoor lot, which is often little more than a fenced-in patch of dirt. Because the hens’ food is stored indoors, there is little incentive for them to go outside, despite their “access.”


Google satellite view of "Judy's Family Farm"

The imagery on egg cartons is usually a total fabrication. Factory farms strive to project a quaint, family farm image. Their packaging materials show small barns and chickens roaming in idyllic settings. (See, for example, egg cartons for “Judy’s Family Farm,” which is nothing more than the marketing work of a large factory farming operation.). When these images are juxtaposed with the labels “cage free” and “free range,” they give consumers the wrong impression.

So what eggs do come from humane conditions? Unfortunately, none that you can find in the typical supermarket or grocery store. In many areas, however, it’s possible to buy humanely-raised eggs directly from small-time farmers or from specialty stores that buy from these farmers. The key is to look for eggs from “pasture-raised” or “pastured” chickens. These chickens spend their days outside in the grass, scratching in the dirt and eating bugs. See the section on price and availability below.

Pastured eggs are quite a bit more expensive than normal, factory-farmed eggs. They’re also healthier to eat. I’ll get into that later as well.

Meat: Chicken, Pork, and Beef

Factory farmed chickens raised for their meat have it about as bad as “cage free” chickens raised for their eggs. They live in large warehouses packed with thousands of their own kind. Their beaks are clipped and they live amidst the ammonia stench of their own urine.

The “free range” label means the same thing it does for eggs: the chickens need only be given “access” to the outdoors. The amount of time they are given access and the quality of their outdoor area — and most likely whether they use it at all — are up to the factory farmer.

Pigs in a factory farm, courtesy Wikipedia

Pigs in a factory farm, courtesy Wikipedia

Factory farmed pigs have it especially bad. They’re crammed together into small cages in large warehouses where they have little room to move. They bite at each other out of frustration and boredom. They develop sores on their bodies from lying on the hard floor. While pregnant, sows are confined to “gestation crates,” where they don’t have enough room to turn around and can do little more than eat and lie down.

Cattle probably get the best treatment of the bunch. They spend the beginnings of their lives on pasture. When they’re about 6 to 12 months old, however, they’re shipped off to dirt feedlots, where they’re packed together with thousands of others, forced to stand in piles of their own manure, juiced up on hormones, and stuffed with grain and whatever other food can be bought cheaply — stale candy, sugar beet waste, chicken feces, etc. Because cows’ stomachs are designed to digest grasses, this diet gives them painful and constant indigestion. Feedlot cows are given regular doses of antibiotics to ward off diseases stemming from their lifestyle.

So how to get humanely-raised meat? The key words again are “pastured” and “pasture-raised.” “Free range” and “grass fed” aren’t good enough. All cattle are grass fed before they’re shipped to feedlots. Look for beef that is “100% grass fed” or “grass finished” instead. However, even some cows that are “100% grass fed” are confined for most of their lives, so it’s necessary to verify that they were pastured.

As with eggs, meat from pastured animals is substantially healthier than meat from factory farmed animals. See the section below on health.

Milk and Other Dairy Products

Dairy cattle have it at least as bad as beef cattle. They’re also confined to feedlots. They’re artificially inseminated yearly to keep them lactating and separated from their calves shortly after giving birth — which is traumatic, judging from their reaction. They’re given hormones to increase milk production far beyond natural levels and then antibiotics to ward off diseases that result. Mastitis, a painful udder infection, afflicts about half of them.

Once again, look for milk from cows that are “pastured.” From what I’ve seen, most pastured dairy cows are confined indoors for part of the year or during certain seasons — but that can be done in a sanitary and humane way. Look for dairy products from cows not treated with any hormones (all organic products pass this requirement).

Health Benefits

Humane treatment of animals isn’t the only reason to by pastured eggs, meat, and dairy products. The pastured versions of all three are significantly healthier than factory farmed equivalents along a number of dimensions.

For example: Eggs from pastured hens have less saturated fat, less cholesterol, double the omega-3’s (health-promoting fats), three times the vitamin D, and substantially more vitamin A and E than factory-farmed eggs (whether they be caged, “cage free,” or “free range”). (See, for example, this article.) The difference comes from the pastured hens’ diet and lifestyle — rather than staying indoors and eating grain, pastured hens are outside eating bugs (and some grass) as they would naturally.

Pastured eggs are immediately recognizable: their yolks are a bright, deep orange color (factory farmed eggs’ yolks are more yellowish). This coloring comes from carotenes in the grass.

Factory farmers have started to do ridiculous things to appeal to current health trends. For example, many stores now carry “Omega-3 Enhanced” eggs, which come from hens whose diets have been supplemented with flaxseed (which is high in omega-3). This micro-nutrient approach to health has failed in the past, and it’s just a band-aid, anyway. You get none of the other health benefits of pastured eggs from “Omega-3 Enhanced” eggs.


Decline of omega-3's in feedlot cows, courtesy

Meat from grass-fed animals is similarly better for you. It has substantially less total fat, less saturated fat, less cholesterol, more of vitamins E and C, and more omega-3’s than factory farmed meat. 100% grass fed beef, for example, has about three times the omega-3’s of “normal” beef. Though all cattle start out grass fed, the nutritional content of their meat degrades as they spend time in feedlots (see graph right).

Milk from pastured cows contains more omega-3’s and more of vitamins A and E (see this article). These benefits come from the cows’ diet and the fact that they’re producing less milk.

These health differences aren’t well known. Factory farmers are used to competing only on price. The corners they cut don’t just increase production (and animal suffering); they also produce an inferior product. The eggs, meat, and dairy products we’re eating now are the least healthy in all of human history.

Price and Availability

So pastured eggs, meat, and dairy products are humane and healthy. What’s not to like? Well, two things: price and availability.

You have to do some work to find pastured products, and it’s harder to find them if you don’t live relatively close to farming areas. It’s usually best to buy directly from farmers, either through farmers’ markets or “community supported agriculture” (CSA) programs, which distribute boxes of farm-fresh goods on a regular basis. Some CSA’s distribute eggs, meat, and dairy products.


The "egg matrix" at Rainbow Grocery

It’s also possible to get this stuff from some grocery stores. You won’t have any luck at typical supermarkets like Safeway, but independent ones sometimes carried pastured products. In San Francisco, I found two: Bi-Rite Market and Rainbow Grocery. Both of these places were very clear in their labeling of their products. It’s easy to be fooled by marketing language and imagery on packages, so you have to make sure you’re getting the real thing. I also checked out the Ferry Plaza Farmers’ Market and found three suppliers of pastured eggs and meat there.

Prices aren’t low. Partly this is a San Francisco thing — there’s a lot of demand for these products here, and land prices in the surrounding area are high. But it’s also unavoidable: Factory farming exists because it’s cheap. It’s cruel to animals and produces an inferior product, yes, but it’s cheap. That’s the whole point.

The cheapest pastured eggs I found in San Francisco were $7.50 / dozen. Compare that to $3 – $4 for “cage free” eggs at Safeway and $1 – $2 for eggs from chickens in battery cages. That’s a huge difference, but keep in mind that these products aren’t the same. Pastured eggs are substantially healthier — and tastier, many say — than the alternatives. (Note that pastured eggs are about $6 / dozen from a CSA in my hometown of Modesto, California.)

In general, meat from pasture-raised animals was about 2 to 3 times more expensive than the factory farmed alternatives. For example, ground beef was $6 / lb at the farmers’ market, compared to $3 – $4 / lb at Safeway. A whole chicken was $5 / lb vs. $1.50 / lb at Safeway. has a great state-by-state directory of farms selling pastured animal products.

So how to afford these more expensive products?

There are two options: either hunker down and accept that we’re paying too little for animal products right now (and start paying more), or eat less of them.

Though people like to complain about rising food prices, our total expenditure for food (time- and effort-wise) is, in the context of human history, at an all-time low. Maybe we should be paying more for food (and buying it more responsibly).

Americans eat a lot of animal products. Do we need to stop eating them entirely? No. But do they need to be the centerpiece of every meal? Also no. It’s possible to afford humanely-produced animals products simply by eating less of them.

Is there a middle ground between pastured animal products and bottom-of-the-barrel factory farmed ones? Yes — but it’s more similar to the latter than the former. Organic animal products are usually at least marginally better than normal ones from a humane standpoint — no hormones are used, for example. Some factory farmers are producing better, more-humane products than others. Niman Ranch beef, for example, comes from cattle “finished” in feedlots. But they aren’t given hormones or antibiotics and minimum living and handling standards — over normal industry conditions — are specified.

So there you have it. It’s not easy or cheap to buy humanely-produced animal products. But considerations of animal welfare and personal health provide a strong argument for doing so. Any step in the right direction is better than no step at all. I know I’m changing my buying and eating habits.

Written by miketuritzin

January 4th, 2010 at 10:46 am

Posted in Articles

33 Responses to 'A Guide to Buying Humanely-Produced Meat, Eggs, and Dairy Products'

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  1. I’ve certainly starting thinking about this more since you started talking about it a couple of weeks ago.

    I know I’ve been trending vegetarian for a long time now… but mostly for practical reasons. Meat is hard to buy/store/cook and it is more expensive.

    I certainly feel with a much reduced amount of meat eating it is very easy to buy only the best produced, since the total is still low.

    The hard one for me is milk. I drink a lot and have difficulty paying 4-5x more for organic.

    I agree, the thing you gotta do is accept that food is WAY to cheap.

    Chris Turitzin

    5 Jan 10 at 10:37 am

  2. Hey Chris, thanks for the comment. On the milk issue: organic milk definitely isn’t 4-5x more expensive than “normal,” at least where I’ve seen it. At Safeway, it’s more like 2x. But from a humane standpoint, organic milk isn’t necessarily much different from “regular” — the main benefit to the animals is that no hormones are used.


    5 Jan 10 at 10:41 am

  3. Having been vegetarian for a year once, I can say the hardest part is that first hurdle. You have to relearn and rethink shopping and cooking. Once the initial breakdown and rebirth of eating habits happens (for me it was 2 months) you start to see just how easy it can be.

    I did it for a year for health reasons, and partially as a “what if” goal. As with most things in life, the first step is the hardest.

    The inhumane treatment of the animals had very little influence in my choosing a vegetarian diet, but it never hurt to think that I wasn’t contributing to their dismal life. (Though tasty in death)


    5 Jan 10 at 5:24 pm

  4. Well done! Huzzah, and three clucks to the sentiment.


    6 Jan 10 at 10:43 pm

  5. My family keeps a few chicks so we get the eggs directly from them. I don’t approve any kind of torture to animals tough.

  6. Im wondering if u or anyone else feels that boycotting these products, e.g., being vegan/raw/whatever, on a large scale would help or hurt making humane animal products available. Obviously, it’s an extreme measure, and I’m worried that such a movement would ultimately ban inhumane products, furthering the cost of any animal product, and making them completely out of reach to the general public, who rely on these products more than people who are health-conscious. However, it’s probably the only direct, effective way of ending inhumane products from being manufactured. We all have a choice, but I think less people can afford to make the most wise decisions, especially in other countries who don’t have the luxury of making a healthy decision. Btw, I am a vegan, because I have that luxury.


    3 Mar 10 at 9:54 pm

  7. When I think about factory farming and the corporate machine that propels this industry it infuriates me to be bone. It seems that major food producing companies will always place profits above everything else thereby providing animals with the lowest quality of life legally possible. In addition it infuriates me that our very own government (such as the US Department of Agriculture) provide companies labels to manipulate moral consumers =with meaningless labels such as “free range, etc” Clearly the corporate lobbyists are winning, our governments are corrupt and there is no legislation in place to protect animal rights.

    Individually we can all make a difference by not buying these products, but I believe that for real change to transpire it must come from the top. It is the governments moral imperative to disallow such treatments of animals and the curtain that blinds the average consumer from knowing where their food comes from must be shed!


    24 Jun 10 at 2:09 am

  8. Completely agree, Thomas!


    24 Jun 10 at 9:58 am

  9. Thanks for the great article! I had no idea “free range” meant anything other than happy chickens pecking away in the sun (or clouds, or whatever). You’ve inspired me. I’m going to buy eggs from my orchardist friends (who own 12 chickens) and look for better sources of beef, too. I’m sure one of the health food places in town (of which there are many) will have pastured beef, and now that I know what labels to look for ^_^ we are better informed! Thanks!


    3 Mar 11 at 12:36 pm

  10. Thanks for the great information! I have bought less and less meat over the years due to the way animals are treated to produce it, but I probably wouldn’t ever be able to go completely vegetarian. I’d be perfectly willing to spend more on humanely-produced animal products, and I know I’m not alone in that, but I’ve not so far found any available in my area. I wonder why the meat industry hasn’t explored this potentially lucrative niche. Could it be that if enough people become more aware of ‘humanely-produced’ meat, it will inevitably lead to greater awareness that the vast majority of meat is not humanely produced? Anyway, after reading your article, I’m more determined than ever to find humane products, even if I have to order from distant producers. Thank you for re-igniting my resolve.


    22 Apr 11 at 1:28 pm

  11. Anyone know anything about this organization? Sounds great – I’d love to know if they’re as credible as they sound. This definitely seems like it could be an effective way to address the ‘humanely-produced’ issue.


    22 Apr 11 at 1:34 pm

  12. That’s great, Elizabeth! I’m not personally familiar with Certified Humane, though I am always a bit suspicious of labels like that. Worth looking into.


    22 Apr 11 at 1:53 pm

  13. Just got Food inc from netflix to watch…I have ordered film to keep and share and the book And left with dilemma of what can I eat now!
    buying humane products is not only humane it is selfserving;one can get safer products and not be enabler.Was happy to learn Chipoltle Mexican Grill offers meat provided from humane farmers who raise Pork,beef and chickens humanely…I usually go vegetarian though have occasional steak burrito there.The real shame is the US serves the farmer (and they are not small family farms) more than the consumer.


    26 Apr 11 at 2:02 pm

  14. Thanks for the write up it was a good read. Since starting the paleo diet I’ve been adjusting and scrutinizing my food much more so then ever before. I’m finding the most frustrating thing is the amount of deception there is in marketing terms eg grass-fed/grass finished, organic etc. Finding quality food really should not be this time consuming.

    As far as regulation goes having cooperation from legislation would be help, however I personally believe we can most affect change in how food is produced by buying more of the higher quality food. When the industry takes notice of how much more money can be made by selling quality food then will change themselves. However we do need more regulation a la marketing and terminology.


    28 Feb 12 at 11:26 am

  15. Thank you for this great article. I’m going to use this information and share it widely.

    Per Elizabeth’s post, I spent the afternoon reading the very comprehensive standards for the Certified Humane label (available here:

    I’m not an expert, and there are probably shortcomings to these guidelines that others can point out. One thing was clear to me, however, from reading these documents: the advisors (many PhD animal behaviorists, including Temple Grandin) really care about the welfare of food animals and have carefully considered how to improve their conditions. I find that encouraging.


    29 Jun 12 at 11:10 am

  16. Great article!
    I buy Vital Farm eggs from Austin TX, they can be found at whole foods, and are pasture raised (google map them, you can see how they rotate the pastures for foraging in the grass!)
    Also, Organic Valley milk claims to use only pastured cows for their milk.
    If only more cared not only for the animal, but for themselves and bought more humanely, priced would reflect it!


    13 Feb 13 at 9:29 am

  17. My husband and I just watched Vegucated on Netflix. Ignorance is bliss as they say so we are now looking into reducing our animal product consumption. One thing that Im not sure how to reconcile is the way the animals are killed – I wonder if anyone knows what ways are and are not humane – or how do you reconcile that personally? The documentary explained that chickens are sometimes killed by putting their heads in water with an electric current running. It would be helpful to hear others thoughts on this. Thank you,

    Dr. CK

    25 Feb 13 at 11:51 am

  18. i would like to purchase this type of eggs in elgin il 60120


    13 Mar 13 at 9:53 am

  19. I just read your article, can you give more information aas to which brands are really trustworthy, since I don’t have access to a farmer’s market all the time. There are also so many conflicting reports,eggs, no eggs, what is the true answer, do we really need to eat them? I think we, as a people , need to be louder, what happened to the days of protests. What more can we do? I would love to do more!

    Shilana Finkel Lahav

    7 Apr 13 at 2:34 pm

  20. I am not a big meat eater, but I do eat meat. I knew nothing about the “inhumane” treatment of the animals and about the “junk” we are ingesting when we consume these animals and their products. It is quite gross!!!! My daughter who learned all about this in college filled me in. I am now on a conquest to find humane and healthy versions of these animal products. I very much care about the treatment of these animals and the products that my family and I eat. Unfortunately, with companies using deceptive labelling “terms,” it is very hard to figure out what products are humane and healthy. :(


    15 Apr 13 at 12:25 pm

  21. Are all dairy and meat products that don’t indicate pasture raised inhumane I wonder or just some?

    Janie Lapka

    28 Apr 13 at 8:43 am

  22. How can we get this story out to the public more…I just realized this all when my son told me to watch the youtube video called “From Farm to Freezer”…I have felt sick since then, and only been eating salads. What can we do??? How can we help these animals, and send the awful abusive, bullies of workers to jail for animal cruelty…


    6 Jun 13 at 1:05 pm

  23. I am and have been aware of this terrible inhumane way poor animals are treated for many years now & always sought places to buy where they are pasture raised/ grass fed and TREATED humanely!
    There is a farm I have found called Moon Dancing Farm in upstate NY they have a great site that shows their farm and the picture of the pigs out in the field is something I wish all these animals you have pictured here could have..SUPPORT them & other farmers like them it is SO RIGHT!

    Sally Cartwright

    5 Jul 13 at 12:33 pm

  24. This was incredibly helpful. I am very concerned on how humanely my food was treated. I hope that I can find pastured eggs, dairy, and meat in London!


    6 Jan 14 at 12:06 pm

  25. What you are saying is so true. However, there are small farms where animals are treated with great care and love. A valuable service chickens provide is producing rich fertilizer and keeping insect pests and mice under control. Having a flock of roaming chickens can eliminate a slug and snail problem, keep fly populations down, and even reduce the number of mice as some heritage breeds are excellent mice hunters.


    21 Apr 14 at 5:12 pm

  26. Being Vegan/Vegetarian is the best option if we are really worry about boycotting this products. It is about becoming more sensitive with living being. I follow Jainism where I now feel sick drinking milk too. :(

    Mikita Shah

    20 Aug 14 at 5:39 pm

  27. I came to the US few years ago from North Africa, Tunisia to be precise. I love this country except when it comes to how hard it is to find humane meat and dairy products. I am not claiming my country is much better but a lot easier to get humanly raised animals products for sure. I grew up where we got raw milk fresh every single morning (about 1 liter and half deposited in front of our door at 5am) from cows we play with every afternoon (we were lucky enough that our neighbor raised cows for milk and we would go wash the cows and play with them and their babies), meat came from our neighborhood butcher, you saw the sheep in the morning and you ate it at night, we also have a committee that goes around making sure all knives are as sharp as possible to cause as little pain as possible (since we eat halal meat) and that the sheep is kept clean and fed and watered until the last second and that no sheep gets slaughtered in front of any other sheep (and other requirements as well), also we got eggs from the 5 chickens my dad raised in our backyard, they were of course free to roam whenever and they would go back to sleep inside their room (it was a huge room that was kept clean every day by us and had no door, so they can go in and out, our dog made sure no animal sneaked in to eat the chicken and their chicks and we never had issues)… anyways, i never really wondered where meat comes from and milk and all that in the US. For some naive reason, I trusted the experts until I started being curious and horrified at the outcome and findings. I am basically maximally vegetarian now because I just can’t consume meat where the animal was tortured and with dairy I try to get as humanely as possible. I am however as broke as anyone can be, my husband and I are both Phd students so we get insanely low payments .. anyways, it is great that people are concerned :) Thank you everyone.


    9 Sep 14 at 8:30 am

  28. Toussa, thanks for your comment! Really appreciated hearing how things were (are) in Tunisia.


    10 Sep 14 at 7:01 pm

  29. Everything in my gut says the full-on Vegan lifestyle is wrong. First of all, it is almost impossible to find any real food. It is all processed Frankenstein food. Vegan cheese… I have tried it. It is totally disgusting. I have personally come to the conclusion for myself that no extreme is wise, whether it be a “no meat” diet, “no carb” diet, all “this,” or all “that.” The majority of a person’s diet should be fruit and plant-based. I believe that. But I believe humans are definitely supposed to be eating meat. They should be focused on humanely-raised and organic as much as possible. But I think it is time to start moving away from the American standard of every meal revolving around meat. I don’t think we need to banish meat, but many more meals we all eat regularly could be all plant-based.


    17 Mar 15 at 1:09 am

  30. The more demand the more supply so buy pasture raised meat so they will change to that more the price is worth it for the well being of animals God didn’t design farming the be this cruel


    10 Aug 15 at 5:37 pm

  31. Thanks for writing this! I recently converted back to eating chicken after about 10 years of being vegetarian. Finding information on this stuff is incredibly hard and most of them are misleading.

    I used to get Chicken from Whole Foods where they have producers who follow the 5-step animal welfare guidelines. I went for pasture raised (Crystal Lake Farms). This is one of the things that made me start eating chicken again. Only recently I found out that the 5-step guideline had nothing in it for animal slaughter. It only deals with and monitors how they are handled before slaughtering. I stopped eating their chicken after that. I figure the only way to go about getting humanely slaughtered meat is to get meat from local farmers.

    Kumar Rajendran

    20 Sep 16 at 10:20 pm

  32. In the past I wanted to become a vegetarian because of the inhumane ways animals are treated and raised by companies. Problem was that I love Meat, Dairy, and Poultry (I live in Texas, its in my blood). As you can probably guess it didn’t last long (3 months). I am kinda stuck with eating the factory stuff because my family doesn’t earn a lot and there never really was a place to buy more humanely produced animal products in my city. Recently a place that may have what I am looking for opened right near my home.

    I am happy I read this article before going there because I would have most likely fallen for the “Free range” or the “Cage Free” disguise. Thank you for writing the article.

    Andrew C.

    7 Jan 17 at 10:50 am

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